Abstracts – Day 1

Day 1 – Wednesday 22nd of March 2017

There are three parallel sessions on day 1 (please see below for info). The abstracts for these sessions can be found by clicking on the drop-down menu’s below.

Parallel session 1 – 11:30 – 13:00

  • Greenhouse Gases (Auditorium)
  • Bioproducts and Biorefineriers (Exchange Room 1)

Parallel session 2 – 14:00 – 15:00

  • Pyrolysis (Auditorium)
  • Aviation (Exchange Room 1)

Parallel session 3 – 16:00 – 18:00

  • Biomass Resources (Auditorium)
  • Novel Approaches (Exchange Room 1)
  • Environment and Ecosystems (Exchange Room 2+3)

The full conference agenda can be found by clicking here.

  • Greenhouse Gases

    • Keynote presentation: Carbon management and emission accounting frameworks for forest systems: Evelyne Thiffault, Laval University, Canada
    • Trace gas (N2O and CH4) flux in land-use transitions to and from agricultural grassland to Miscanthus and SRC willow :Jon McCalmont, IBERS, Aberystwyth University
    • Perennial bioenergy crop removal at commercial scales: investigating impacts on soil carbon stocks: Rebecca Rowe, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster
    • Bacterial dynamics associated with biochar-mediated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from soil amended with anaerobic digestates: Helen West, University of Nottingham
    • Climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties from waste wood based energy systems in the UK: Patricia Thornley, University of Manchester
    • Emissions Beyond Borders – Bioenergy GHG Emissions across National Borders & Industry Sectors : Andrew Welfle, University of Manchester

  • KEYNOTE: Assistant Professor Evelyne Thiffault

    Title: Carbon management and emission accounting frameworks for forest systems

    Abstract: The environmental sustainability of forest biomass procurement needs to be well understood. Emerging bioenergy markets typically first take advantage of secondary residue streams of various wood processing industries and tertiary end-of-life residues. When these resources in any region become scarce or fully utilized, by-products of forestry harvesting operations and silvicultural practices such as branches, tops, and non-merchantable trees become increasingly targeted as feedstock sources. Forest biomass procurement for bioenergy should therefore not be analyzed as a stand-alone activity, but rather as an intensification of land use and of forest management. Thus, principles of protection and sustainability should remain the same whether forests are managed for conventional forest products only or also for biomass for energy, with some modifications for sensitive sites where field evidence suggests that the incremental removal of biomass may not be sustainable. Applying this logic to carbon accounting, one needs to consider bioenergy as part of the basket of wood products that can be sourced from a given landscape. For example, one should take into account how biomass procurement, by providing an outlet for residues and lower-quality fibre, might increase foresters’ confidence in future markets and create incentives for forest management and measures to improve forest productivity, with benefits in terms of GHG mitigation.

  • 1.1.1: Trace gas (N2O and CH4) flux in land-use transitions to and from agricultural grassland to Miscanthus and SRC willow

    Presenter: Jon McCalmont, IBERS, Aberystwyth University  ‌

    Abstract:Trace gas emissions can form a significant proportion of the GHG climate burden from conventional agriculture. Current literature suggests that emission of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) is far lower in Miscanthus crop production (particularly when unfertilised) than in alternative cropping or animal production systems. However, these studies are limited and often restricted to mature sites; within our recent study across multiple UK sites (http://www.elum.ac.uk) we observed large, intermittent spikes of N2O from soils immediately following transition from an agricultural grassland to Miscanthus. These spikes were extremely variable, both spatially and temporally, and were restricted to a single, commercial scale, grassland conversion site in the network (Aberystwyth); leaving significant conclusions difficult to demonstrate.

    In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty around these flux dynamics, replicated plot trials are being developed at Aberystwyth University as part of the current MAGLUE project (http://www.maglue.ac.uk/); utilising higher frequency, multiple static chamber sampling alongside regular assessments of soil nutrient status. These trials consider both conversions from grassland to Miscanthus using different cultivation techniques and reversions from existing long term Miscanthus and SRC willow back to agricultural grassland, capturing transition periods of forage cover crops. These results will be combined with high frequency, on-site meteorological data to try to gain a better understanding of the drivers of these fluxes. Initial results from the reversion sites have revealed increased N2O flux from the Miscanthus reversion compared to the willow following spraying out of the existing crop prior to re-cultivation. Both crop reversions showed higher N2O flux compared to their retained controls. Results for both N2O and CH4 from the original, commercial scale transition from grassland to Miscanthus will be presented alongside fresh results from this first year of reversion; these will be complemented by preliminary results from new conversion trials which began in Spring 2016.

  • 1.1.2: Perennial bioenergy crop removal at commercial scales: investigating impacts on soil carbon stocks

    Presenter: Rebecca Rowe, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster

    Abstract:Within the UK an increasing number of commercial perennial bioenergy plantations are now undergoing removal: either to allow for replanting, as plantations reach the end of their life-spans, or for conversion into other crops, due to economic considerations.

    Unlike the impacts of land use change into perennial bioenergy cropping the impacts of crop removal have been less well studied, in part due to the historically limited number of crop removals being undertaken. Crop removal often involves processes related to negative impacts on soil carbon stocks, such as the mechanical disturbance of soil and removal of above-ground biomass. Quantifying these impacts is key in understanding the overall greenhouse budget of these bioenergy crops.

    To address this question within the EPSRC MAGLUE Project (www.maglue.ac.uk), we have initiated a large scale field campaign to assess the impacts of perennial bioenergy crop removal on soil carbon stocks. This campaign is targeted at commercial bioenergy plantations within the UK where crops have been partially or completely removed.

    Here, we show results from the first year of this work, comprising of data collected from two commercial short rotation coppice willow and two commercial Miscanthus x giganteus plantations where crop removal and reversion into agricultural cropping has occurred. Soil sampling was conducted at these sites to a depth of 1 meter, and analysed in 10 cm sections providing detailed soil carbon depth profiles.  Comparisons will be made between soil carbon profiles in the removed bioenergy crops, paired fields that have never been utilised for bioenergy and, where available, remaining areas of bioenergy cropping.

    As an alternative to crop removal results will also be shown of the impacts of the shallow tillage of a commercial Miscanthus field. This practice is designed to delay the need for replanting where the Miscanthus plantations have developed a heterogeneous (patchy) distribution.

  • 1.1.3: Bacterial dynamics associated with biochar-mediated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from soil amended with anaerobic digestates

    Presenter: Helen West, University of Nottingham.

    Abstract:A key source of anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) is use of organic fertilisers such as manure and slurry. Since anaerobic digestates are increasingly used as a fertiliser, evaluating their potential as sources of greenhouse gases is important. We have previously reported that N2O fluxes from soil amended with anaerobic digestates derived from three distinctive feedstocks resulted in different degrees of nitrification, microbial sequestration of nitrogen and N2O losses. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest from anaerobic digestate derived from maize silage and lowest from that originating from cattle dung. Biochar is a stable product of pyrolysis and when simultaneously added to soil with the anaerobic digestates, N2O losses were reduced compared to the digestate amendment alone, with the greatest amelioration observed in treatments producing the highest N2O concentrations. Microbial activity measured by soil respiration was not greater in treatments producing the highest N2O emissions or soil nitrate. This suggests that either microbial functional groups were altered by biochar amendment, or complete reduction of soil nitrate to nitrogen gas occurred. To determine treatment-related changes in the soil microbiota, we undertook a high throughput genomic approach to evaluate the microbial diversity and abundance of key groups associated with soil nitrogen dynamics. These new data will be presented in context with those for N2O losses in the digestate-soil-biochar system.

  • 1.1.4: Climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties from waste wood based energy systems in the UK

    Presenter: Patricia Thornley, University of Manchester

    Abstract:The majority of treated wood waste arising in the UK is currently landfilled. Considering the urgent need to shift to low carbon energy carriers, these untapped waste wood resources could provide an alternative energy feedstock and at the same time reduce emissions from landfill. This research examines the climate change impacts and related uncertainties of waste wood based energy. For this different grades of waste wood and energy application (electricity, heat, combined heat and power/CHP) have been investigated by using lifecycle assessment. Based on this, sensitivity analyses have been applied for supply chain processes and feedstock properties with the highest emission contributions (transport, material losses, pelleting, adhesive/treatment component). The results show, depending on the waste wood grade, the conversion option, scale and the related counterfactual, that emission reduction of about 23% to 76% are possible for non- and low treated wood waste. Compared to this, energy from treated wood waste can achieve 63% emission savings but in most cases emissions exceed the ones of the fossil fuel reference, in the worst case by 172%. Emission reduction rates from treated grades are highest when replacing electricity from large scale coal and landfill with energy recovery but failed to do so in CHP and heat applications.  The highest emission uncertainties are related to the wood’s adhesive content and nitrous dioxide forming during combustion, while emission variations related to transport, pelleting and material losses are considerably smaller. Using treated wood waste as bioenergy feedstock can be a valid option to reduce emissions from waste management and energy production but this is only realisable if highly carbon intense fuels are replaced. To achieve meaningful emission reduction in line with national and international climate change targets, pre-treatment of waste wood would be required to reduce components that form nitrous dioxide during the energy conversion.

  • 1.1.5: Emissions Beyond Borders – Bioenergy GHG Emissions across National Borders & Industry Sectors

    Presenter: Andrew Welfle, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Manchester.

    Abstract:The flexibility of bioenergy makes it a highly attractive energy option for countries at all development stages, as a result demand for biomass is rising fast. Increasingly country’s bioenergy strategies are relying on imported resource to balance resource demands, although there are limitations, sustainability implications and greenhouse gas (GHG) questions relating to the trade of biomass for energy. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioenergy pathways has demonstrated that bioenergy can provide wide ranging GHG performances; depending on the characteristics of supply chains, counterfactual processes/activities that be mitigated, and the specific technologies applied.

    Where biomass is traded the resource is produced/mobilised in different countries from where its ultimately converted to energy; the location of GHG emissions will likewise be located in different countries. Questions are often asked about where/whether these emissions are accounted and if genuine overall GHG savings are achieved. Other bioenergy pathways may result in reductions in GHG emissions through mitigating high GHG impact processes/activities within a resource’s counterfactual pathway – GHG benefits of such pathways may be accounted in emission inventories not linked to the energy sector.

    This presentation will explore the theme that bioenergy emissions have no borders: emission impacts/savings potentially being unequally distributed across multiple countries, and emission impacts/savings being accounted unequally within the emission inventories of multiple sectors. Through introducing research focused on the LCA analysis of UK bioenergy scenarios reflecting both the use of imported (from North America) and domestic resources, the presentation will highlight how: bioenergy can provide genuine GHG reductions compared to fossil fuels; provide a breakdown and location of emissions across life cycles – discussing the current emission accounting problems; whilst also demonstrating how bioenergy can be used to decarbonise the emission inventories of multiple sectors other than just energy.

  • Bioproducts and Biorefineries

    • Integration of Hydrothermal Carbonisation with Anaerobic Digestion: Opportunities for Valorisation of Digestate: Kiran Parmar, University of Leeds, UK
    • Nutrient cycling and carbon sequestration using bio-refinery residues: Ondrej Masek, University of Edinburgh
    • Use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for the Rapid Low-Cost Analysis of a Wide Variety of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks: Dan Heyes, Celignis

  • Keynote: Professor Raffaella Ocone

    Title: From Fundamentals to Industrial Applications – Opportunities and Challenges

    Abstract: Conversion of biomass poses challenges at each stage of the production chain. Sustainability issues characterise not only the feedstock supply but also the end-use products. Technical challenges might hinder large scale economically viable conversion processes. The talk reviews the most common technologies for biomass conversion and explores some of the research which would be needed to deliver biofuels and chemicals in a sustainable and reliable manner. An example of current research in the area of pyrolysis is presented and its advantages and limitations are discussed.

  • 1.2.1: Integration of Hydrothermal Carbonisation with Anaerobic Digestion: Opportunities for Valorisation of Digestate

    Presenter:Kiran Parmar, University of Leeds, UK


    Aim of the research

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an established technology in the UK, with opportunities for developing hydrothermal technology for enhanced biofuel production. Digestate, a by-product from AD, is currently disposed to land, however legalisation limits disposal options. Therefore, the research aim is to identify the potential to the integration of hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) with AD to treat digestate. The objectives are to understand the influence of feedstock compositions and process conditions on the product yields and properties of hydrohcar and process water from HTC.

    Short summary
    The valorisation of digestate from AD of waste have been investigated by HTC. Feedstocks include agricultural waste, secondary sludge, residual municipal solid waste and vegetable, garden and fruit waste. The influence of AD feedstock and press cake composition on the chemical make-up of hydrochar and process water have been assessed. The potential for increased biogas yields from process water recirculation have been demonstrated and the prospective applications for the hydrochar include use as a fuel, adsorbent or soil additive.

    Main results to be presented
    The influence of press cake composition on the yields of hydrochar and process water is presented together with the change in chemical make-up. In general, lower temperature processing results in higher levels of sugars, higher temperature processing results in more VFA and potentially inhibitory compounds in the process water. Feedstocks containing high levels of lignocellulose produce higher yields of hydrochar and may be more suitable for producing bio-coal. Potential integration strategies to maximise energy recovery are proposed.

    This integration approach increases AD efficiency and revenue by increasing biogas yields. This approach also helps to meet renewable targets and aid the bio-economy. Benefits to the environment are made by mitigating fugitive methane emissions (by reducing disposal of digestate to land) and provides additional supply chains for solid fuel.

  • 1.2.2: Nutrient cycling and carbon sequestration using bio-refinery residues

    Presenter: Ondrej Masek, University of Edinburgh, Scotland

    Abstract: Biomass consists of four main constituents, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and minerals. The first two, and to some extent also lignin are the key targets for various conversion processes producing biofuels and chemicals. Minerals on the other hand are a by-product whose potential is yet to be realized. As biomass production requires minerals, such as N, P, K and others, the natural way to use this bio-refinery side-stream is as a fertilizer, closing the nutrient cycle. However, depending on the form of mineral residues, direct application to land may not be an option. Even if the minerals are in a form acceptable for land application, it may not be the most effective way, as nutrients supplied in this way are prone to leaching, and a different form of fertilizer, one with controlled release rate is needed.

    Such product can be obtained by combining extracted minerals with another bio-refinery by-product, lignin, and subsequent thermal treatment of this blended material. This could be a particularly advantageous way of utilizing and adding value to low-quality lignins that are difficult to use for other high value applications. This is true not only for biorefineries using terrestrial biomass, but also for those utilising marine biomass (with typically high mineral content). In addition, due to carbonization of lignin, the resulting product could be viewed as biochar, and therefore offer carbon sequestration potential, in form of storage of solid stable carbon in soils. Results of research in these areas will be presented.

    In conclusion, recovery and re-cycling of nutrients is an important aspect of bio-refineries, to achieve environmental sustainability, and this process can be made more efficient by utilizing synergies with other bio-refinery co-products, especially lignin. Combined densified and thermally treated mineral-lignin composites have the potential to be a high quality fertilizer product, with added carbon sequestration benefit. 

  • 1.2.3: Use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for the Rapid Low-Cost Analysis of a Wide Variety of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    Presenter: Dan Heyes, Celignis

    Abstract: It is important to know the lignocellulosic composition of a feedstock in order to ascertain its potential value for biorefining. The standard laboratory methods of analysis are costly and time consuming. Celignis personnel have worked on the development of rapid, low cost methods of analysis using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). Over 2000 biomass samples have been collected and processed for conventional analysis with the NIR spectra of each sample collected at several stages of sample preparation. The dried samples were then analysed via reference methods for a number of lignocellulosic constituents, ash, extractives, and elemental composition. Following this NIR models were developed for a large number of constituents (including glucan, arabinan, galactan, xylan, mannan, rhamnan, total sugars, Klason lignin, acid soluble lignin, extractives, ash, and nitrogen) using a calibration set and the predictive abilities of the models were tested on an independent set. Separate models were developed on specific sample groups (Miscanthus, pre-treated biomass, peat, straws, waste paper/cardboard, sugarcane bagasse and others). In addition a global model was developed incorporating all those samples as well as many other sample types including: trees, energy crops, agricultural residues, animal excreta, biorefinery residues, grasses, municipal wastes, composts etc. The models developed were highly accurate and robust for important lignocellulosic constituents. For example, the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) [and R2 in prediction] for the global dataset were 1.84% [0.976], 0.75% [0.989], and 1.73% [0.983] for glucan, xylan, and Klason lignin, respectively.  This work is significant since it is the first demonstration of the utility of NIR in the commercial analysis of such a wide variety of biomass samples for all these lignocellulosic constituents. We will also present on the application and enhancement of our NIR method within a current H2020 Biomass Based Industries (BBI) project.

  • Aviation

    • Drop in potential of upgraded fuels produced at pilot scale via hydrothermal liquefaction of different biomass feedstocks: Patrick Biller, Aarhus University, Denmark
    • Review on aviation biofuel processes: Stavros Michailos,  European Bioenergy Research Institute (EBRI), Aston University

  • 2.1.1: Drop in potential of upgraded fuels produced at pilot scale via hydrothermal liquefaction of different biomass feedstocks

    Presenter: Patrick Biller, Aarhus University, Denmark

    Abstract:Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an emerging technology for the production of drop-in biofuels from biomass and organic wastes. Aqueous slurries are processed in hot-compressed water to produce a high energy density bio-crude. The resulting HTL bio-crude requires upgrading via catalytic hydrotreating and distillation to produce fuels resembling gasoline, diesel and kerosene. The technology has been shown to result in high mass, carbon and energy yields to upgraded fuel for a variety of feedstocks such as lignocellulosics, wastes and algae. A major bottleneck of the technology is its demonstration on large scale continuous reactors.

    In the current work a state of the art pilot scale continuous HTL facility with a throughput of up to 100 L/h was used to produce bio-crude. The reactor system employed innovative pumping, mixing and pressure release systems to pump high solids (20 wt.%) containing slurries to 250 bar and 350°C. Bio-crude was catalytically hydrotreated in batch reactors to reduce heteroatom contents (O and N), lower the viscosity, density and increase the higher heating value. Different biomasses ranging from lignocellulosics to high protein feedstocks were employed to assess the effect of feedstock on drop-in fuel potential. The analysis of compounds in upgraded fuels revealed a large abundance of aliphatic and aromatic fuel components ranging from C8-C20.

    The different fuel cuts; gasoline, diesel and kerosene were quantified for each biomass and compounds quantified via GC-MS to elucidate fuel production pathways from biomass to final fuels.

    This work demonstrates continuous HTL at large scale for a variety of feedstocks successfully, a major step towards the commercialisation of the technology. This data allows the assessment of the HTL technology for a wide range of biomasses and fuel products which will allow more realistic and accurate life cycle and techno-economic assessments of the HTL technology for different feedstocks.

  • 2.1.2: Review on aviation biofuel processes

    Presenter: Stavros Michailos,  European Bioenergy Research Institute (EBRI), Aston University

    Abstract: Aviation fuel, a petroleum-based fuel used to power aircraft, has stricter quality requirements than fuels used in road transport. The worldwide aviation industry consumes approximately 250 billion litres of conventional jet fuel per year. Fuel is the largest operating cost in the aviation industry, and the unstable prices of crude oil hinder long-term planning and expense budgeting. Renewable feedstock-derived jet fuels can reduce the dependency of the aviation industry on one single energy source, reducing the volatility of petroleum prices, and potentially reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although the feedstock price and availability and energy intensity of the process are significant barriers, biomass-derived jet fuel has the potential to replace a significant portion of conventional jet fuel required to meet commercial and military demand.

    In view of these, the aim of the present study is to conduct a comprehensive review of the current technologies for producing renewable jet fuels. The main challenges for each technology pathway, including feedstock availability, conceptual process design, process economics, life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, and commercial readiness, are discussed. In this review, the upgrading pathways are classified as one of eight types, based on the feedstocks and conversion processes: (1) alcohol-to-jet (ATJ), (2) oil-to-jet (OTJ), (3) gas-to- jet (GTJ), (4) aqueous phase reforming (APR), (5) sugar-to-jet (STJ), (6) hydrotreated depolymerised cellulosic jet (HDCJ), (7) hemicellulose to jet (HTJ) and (8) lignin-to-jet (LTJ). A review of commercial airline experiences to date is also included.  The study makes a consistent and comparative assessment of the overall energy, economic and environmental efficiencies of the potential biomass to biojet fuel conversion options. The final step of the evaluation is the conduction of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) where, according to the values of each examined indicator, a score is attributed to each alternative.

  • Pyrolysis

    • Introduction to fast pyrolysis: Professor Tony Bridgwater, EBRI, Aston University
    • Slow and intermediate pyrolysis for biochar and chemicals production: Dr Ondrej Masek, University of Edinburgh
    • Fast pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading by hydrodeoxygenation: Daniel Nowakowski, EBRI, Aston University, UK
    • Releasing the commercial potential of microwave pyrolysis: A scalability study: Dr. John Robinson, University of  Nottingham

  • 2.2.1: Fast pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading by hydrodeoxygenation

    Presenter: Daniel Nowakowski, EBRI, Aston University, UK

    Abstract:There is much interest in upgrading bio-oil by hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the liquid using hydrotreating technology. An interesting and poorly explored approach is partial upgrading to either improve stability for direct use in heat and power applications so that conventional engines, turbines and boilers can be used with minimal modification; or to upgrade sufficiently so that product can be safely fed to a conventional refinery to exploit the economies of scale and expertise available to complete the upgrading and produce a completely compatible biofuel.

    This study provides results from catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil by batch autoclave treatment of fast pyrolysis oil using the following catalysts: Ru/C, Pd/C and Pt/C. The beech biomass feedstock was characterised by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). Fast pyrolysis oil was obtained from a 1 kg/h bubbling fluidised bed reactor at a reaction temperature of 500oC. The catalytic hydrotreatment reactions were carried out using a 25 ml Parr autoclave at different severity levels – mild hydrogenation at either 175°C or 225°C followed by a mild hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) at either 225°C or 325°C, at pressure up to 200 bar. Untreated bio-oil and upgraded liquids were characterised using a wide range of chromatography techniques (GC-MS, GC-FID) and nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR).

    This research study was supported by the SUPERGEN Bioenergy Hub – Core project (1.9): Bio-oil partial upgrading.

  • 2.2.2: Releasing the commercial potential of microwave pyrolysis: A scalability study

    Presenter: Dr. John Robinson, University of  Nottingham

    Abstract:The pursuit of sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels has encouraged an acceleration in the development of new technologies for biomass processing. In this regard, microwave pyrolysis of biomass has long been recognised to provide potential opportunities for producing a range of biobased products. Unlike conventional heating, microwave heating occurs through the interaction of biomass with an electromagnetic wave, the biomass being then volumetrically heated by energy conversion instead of conventional heat transfer mechanisms. Therefore, microwave pyrolysis of large particles can be performed without the need for energy-intensive milling steps. Moreover, the unique cooler surroundings during microwave heating enables the preservation of much larger amounts of easily-cracking volatiles such as sugar derivatives.

    Although the microwave pyrolysis of biomass has been broadly assessed, the usefulness of previous studies to the industrial community is still limited as the majority of these studies are not fundamentally scalable. Particularly, previous studies have always made use of fixed bed reactors in which heating heterogeneity issues and undesired thermal runaway of biomass are usually reported. Five novel scalable processing concepts will be presented to perform the microwave pyrolysis of biomass on an industrial scale whilst preserving and exploiting the inherent advantages of microwave heating. These concepts are developed on the basis of electromagnetic simulations to determine whether they meet the specific requirements to induce a controllable pyrolysis: high power densities and heating homogeneity within the processed biomass. The opportunties and limitations of every concept will be presented in an attempt to determine the optimal microwave scalable system. 

  • Novel approaches

    Keynote:  Professor Raffaella Ocone (Heriot-Watt University)

    • Process Intensification of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae: Fernando Jose Russo Abegao, Newcastle University
    • Treatment of Gasifier Effluents with Non-Thermal Plasmas for Tar Removal :Kui Zhang, University of Newcastle
    • Integration of pyrolysis and AD. How biogas production can benefit: Jan Mumme, The University of Edinburgh
    • Monitoring Metal Aerosol Emissions from Coal and Biomass Combustion under BECCS Operating Regimes: Karen Finney, University of Sheffield
    • Combustion and emissions characteristics of algal biomass slurry diesel emulsions in a direct injection compression ignition engine: Paul Hellier, University College London

  • 3.1.1: Process Intensification of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    Presenter: Fernando Jose Russo Abegao, Newcastle University

    Abstract:Biodiesel can be made from microalgae oil by using, conventional drying, solvent extraction and oil transesterification methods. However, microalgae species grow in an aqueous diluted medium and in order to obtain good oil yields it is necessary to remove most of the water. The drying process uses large amounts of heat and it is energy intensive. This greatly compromises the economic and environmental sustainability of the whole process. Therefore, the research of alternative methods of oil extraction and the development of heterogeneous catalysts that can guarantee good conversion of oil to biodiesel at high concentrations of water are of great importance. In addition, certain algae species have high levels of cellulose in their cell walls making the oil extraction difficult.

    In this project, we are developing alternative technologies that will allow the bypass of the drying step. In particular, we are intensifying the oil extraction and reaction stages by making use of a foam column to concentrate the microalgae and extract the oil in a single stage without requiring drying. A photo-catalyst capable of degrading the cellulose on the microalgae cell walls is being investigated as a mechanism to increase the efficiency of the oil extraction stage in the foam column. Additionally, water tolerant heterogeneous catalysts were developed to convert the oil directly into biodiesel using a one-pot (column!) approach.

    To ensure a fully sustainable design of the integrated system, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA ) was performed. Using tools previously developed for biorefining processes, a cost analysis of process equipment at scaled up scenarios is also being investigated in order to guide the design of equipment and process, and to maximise impact.

  • 3.1.2: Treatment of Gasifier Effluents with Non-Thermal Plasmas for Tar Removal

    Presenter: Kui Zhang, University of Newcastle

    Abstract:Biomass is increasingly of interest as a source of renewable energy. Gasification is a more efficient way of producing energy and chemical products. The gas produced consists mainly of CO2, CO, H2, CH4 and N2 when air is used as a gas medium (typical values: CO: 20%, CO2: 12%, H2: 17%, CH4: 1%, N2: rest; tar). One of the main disadvantages of biomass gasification is tar formation (tar in producer gas: 2-150g/m3). Toluene is one of the model compounds used in tar removal/mitigation studies. Non-thermal plasmas (NTPs) are at much lower temperatures than thermal plasmas (typically near room temperature), but the “electron temperature” is much higher. Therefore, non-thermal plasmas consist of “cold” excited atoms and molecules, with energetic electron temperatures in the range 10,000 to 100,000K (1-10eV), which is higher than normal chemical bond dissociation energy. By tuning the electron temperature, non-thermal plasmas can exhibit good selectivity in various chemical reactions. Here, the conversion of toluene in various carrier gases (CO2, H2, and He) was studied in an NTP reactor at 120ºC and ambient pressure. The study demonstrated that NTP can convert toluene (>99% conversion) in CO2 at low temperatures and ambient pressure. The products include lighter hydrocarbons, synthesis gas (H2 + CO), heavier hydrocarbons/oligomers, the particular mix being “tunable”. A mechanism for plasma-assisted toluene conversion in various carrier gases was proposed. The integration of process intensification, NTP, catalysts and energy harvesting could lead to a new technology for tar removal from gasifier product gas.

  • 3.1.3: Integration of pyrolysis and AD. How biogas production can benefit

    Presenter: Jan Mumme, The University of Edinburgh

    Abstract: Integration of anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis (AD-Pyr) promises several advantages over both individual processes. Almost all energy and mass flows could be coupled within a AD-Pyr system potentially leading to higher energy efficiency and neutral or even negative carbon balance. This work evaluates the opportunities and risks of feeding an AD plant with pyrolysis products. The emphasis is placed on bio-oil and biochar. A set of lab-scale pyrolysis and AD experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of bio-oil and biochar under systematic variation of process conditions. It was found that both products have the ability to enhance and to inhibit the AD process. Bio-oil was generally well biodegradable, but became more toxic when produced at higher temperature. Biochar was observed to stimulate growth of methanogenic biofilms, which stabilized the AD process. But biochar was also observed to bind nutrients that are essential for the AD microflora, which was assumed to be the reason for an observed process inhibition. In conclusion,  AD-Pyr systems possess the opportunity to enhance the production of biogas substantially. In addition to bio-oil, feeding of pyrolysis gas could increase the biogas yield further. Pyrolysis products, however, possess complex compositions and properties that make it difficult to predict the effects on the AD process. In order to avoid process failure, the level of process integration in a commercial setting should be increased gently and the AD process should be monitored closely. This also applies to changes within a fully integrated AD-Pyr system including feedstocks, temperatures, holding times and loading rates.

  • 3.1.4: Monitoring Metal Aerosol Emissions from Coal and Biomass Combustion under BECCS Operating Regimes

    Presenter: Karen Finney, University of Sheffield

    Abstract: Technologies for enabling bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) are vital to decarbonise the energy supply; these can achieve net negative CO2 emissions – strategic for meeting stringent emissions targets and carbon budgets.  Outputs from the IPCC, ZEP and others advocate the use of carbon-negative solutions, like BECCS, highlighting it is one of the key CO2 mitigation strategies.

    The drive towards using biomass for energy generation will encompass a range of fuels, however, we are currently largely unaware of what impacts the impurities in conventional fuels (e.g. wood pellets) have on combustion and downstream processes, including CO2 capture.  Therefore, research is clearly required to assess these implications for conventional fuels prior to the consideration of potentially contaminated biomasses, like wastes or energy crops from ‘brownfield’ sites.

    This paper investigates the key metals and inorganic content in fuels and then assesses their downstream impacts when fired under BECCS operating conditions at the UK Carbon Capture and Storage Research Centre’s (UKCCSRC) National Pilot-scale Advanced CO2 Capture Technology (PACT) Facilities.  This research uses the 250 kW cylindrical down-fired combustion test facility, which can compare different pulverised fuels (coal vs. biomass) and operating regimes (post-combustion capture based on air-firing vs. oxyfuel combustion).  On-line multi-elemental detection using the inductively coupled plasma optical emissions spectrometer at PACT will generate quantitative data concerning entrained metal aerosol emissions.  In particular, this will focus on alkali (Na/K), transition (V/Cu/Fe) and heavy/toxic (Hg/Cr/Cd) metals from different fuels and aid in the determination of their widespread impacts throughout the system – on deposition (slagging/fouling), corrosion and oxidative degradation of the capture solvent.  From this, we can develop strategies for where to remove specific species to minimise their impact and thus facilitate the integration of dedicated biomass power with CO2 capture into a future low-carbon energy system.

  • 3.1.5: Combustion and emissions characteristics of algal biomass slurry diesel emulsions in a direct injection compression ignition engine

    Presenter: Paul Hellier, University College London

    Abstract: Combustion of microalgae biomass, or liquid products derived from algal biomass, conventionally requires potentially energy intensive upstream dewatering, and or further processing steps, such as lipid extraction or hydrothermal liquefaction. This work presents the utilisation of algal biomass as a fuel for a modern direct injection diesel engine, without complete dewatering, through blending of wet algal biomass slurries with fossil diesel in stable emulsions. Algal biomass was produced from the green microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana, and emulsions prepared from algae grown under standard conditions, and also under conditions intended to increase cellular lipid content or growth rates, with a surfactant pack of comprising of Span80, CTAB and butanol utilised for emulsion stabilisation. During engine tests of emulsions of varying algal biomass content, a correlation between the engine work produced during combustion of the emulsions in a modern direct injection compression ignition and the lower heating value of the wet slurry emulsions was found.  Observation of the emulsions after high pressure injection suggested whole algae cells to survive intact to the engine combustion chamber, but no evidence of individual algae cells persisting to the engine exhaust was apparent. For all of the wet algal slurry/diesel emulsions tested, engine exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter were lower than those of a reference fossil diesel tested under similar conditions, while elevated emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) were found in the case of the emulsion prepared from algal biomass to which a flocculating agent had been added.

  • Biomass Resources

    Keynote speaker: Benoit Gabrielle, Professor in Environmental Biophysics at AgroParisTech

    • Genotyping by Sequencing and Genome Wide Association Genetics for Yield Traits and Drought Tolerance in Bioenergy Populus nigra: Mike Allwright, University of Southampton, England, UK
    • Optimisation of Reed Canary Grass as a native European Energy Crop: Elaine Jensen, Aberystwyth University
    • Restoring management to neglected forests in the UK: Are we barking up the wrong tree? :Carly Whittaker, Rothamsted Research
    • Improving rice straw as a feedstock for biorefining : Simon    McQueen-Mason, University of York, England, UK

  • 3.2: Keynote

    Title: Sustainable biomass: an enduring quest amid pressing requests
    Benoît GABRIELLE1,*
    1: INRA AgroParisTech UMR1091 Environment et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France.
    * corresponding author:
    INRA, AgroParisTech EcoSys Joint Research Unit, F-78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France.
    E-mail: Benoit.Gabrielle@agroparistech.fr Phone; (+33) 1 30 81 55 51 Fax: (+33) 1 30 81 55 63
    Meeting future policy targets for the development of bioenergy and the bio-economy in general poses major challenges for biomass feedstock supply chains in terms of competitiveness, reliability and sustainability. Securing a supply of biomass feedstock that is regular in quantity and quality is also a key factor of success for bio-based projects, exacerbated by the scattered nature of biomass resources. In addition, biomass production has to comply with increasingly stringent environmental standards – making it hard to match the afore-mentioned expectations regarding the expansion of bioenergy.
    In this lecture, I will address these issues in the light of recent European projects on the availability of biomass resources, their sustainability and supply chain logistics. Certification schemes and recent regulations on biofuels provide a relevant starting point to define sustainability criteria for biomass and bio-based value chains. The quantification of these criteria relies on widespread methodologies such as life-cycle assessment, while social impacts are harder to tackle. Their application may guide in the selection of feedstocks, crop management practices, or supply chain design, and will be illustrated in the context of the recently completed projects on biomass logistics for energy crops, agricultural and forest residues. The case-studies developed in these projects will highlight potential ways to improve the performance of biomass supply chains altogether with uncertainties associated with the evaluation of sustainability criteria. Taking into account the spatial distribution of bioenergy crops appears paramount to adequately capture their environmental impacts, in particular on biodiversity on the relationship with food production. Tackling land-use change effects in particular is necessary,  and should be addressed on local to global scales.
    The talk will conclude on future lines of research and avenues to promote sustainable biomass supply chains in Europe.  Implications for the design of supply chains and policies will also be discussed.

  • 3.2.1:Genotyping by Sequencing and Genome Wide Association Genetics for Yield Traits and Drought Tolerance in Bioenergy Populus nigra

    Presenter: Mike Allwright, University of Southampton, England

    Abstract: Populus holds significant potential as a second generation feedstock for the production of renewable bioenergy and biofuels. Understanding the genetic basis of key traits, especially those related to biomass yield, is essential for its sustainable intensification and successful commercial deployment. Poplar is a riparian forest tree and global climate change poses a risk to reliable, sustainable biomass yields in the face of more regular and severe drought conditions. It follows that the enhancement of water use efficiency and drought tolerance, the ability to maintain stable yields under drought, are research priorities in this species. Here we report sequence capture GBS using novel, single primer enrichment (SPET) technology targeting the gene space in a natural, wide P. nigra population from across its W European range. 57,098 of these markers were employed in population genetic analyses using principal component analysis and FST outliers to identify 33 genes under putative adaptive selective pressure. 471 genotyped individuals were cultivated under short rotation coppice (SRC) at a field site in Savigliano, Italy. Phenotyping for biomass yield and leaf development traits over 2 years in 2014 and 2015 showed wide diversity within the population. In summer 2015 drought was imposed and the response to water stress was quantified for the first time in this population. These phenotypic and genotypic data were employed in the largest GWAS to date in P. nigra with more than 130,000 SNPs and genome wide significant (p <0.05) associations identified in 48 genes for drought tolerance, biomass yield and leaf development. Several of these genes were associated with more than one phenotype, robust across years and / or drought treatments and have been previously linked with drought or stress tolerance in the literature. These genes are strong candidates for further study and advanced molecular breeding for the development of bioenergy poplar.

  • 3.2.2: Optimisation of Reed Canary Grass as a native European Energy Crop

    Presenter: Elaine Jensen, Aberystwyth University

    Abstract: Reed canary grass has an important role to play in the mix of energy crops in Europe because it exhibits a unique combination of characteristics: 1) it is a native species of Europe, able to grow on very marginal land, with carbon sink and biodiversity benefits; 2) it is inexpensive to establish and fits well into existing farming practice, providing flexibility and low risk to farmers; and 3) it is able to produce harvested biomass from late summer until early spring thereby producing biomass earlier in the year than other energy grasses and so reducing storage requirements for end users. Although relatively limited in its cultivation to date, reed canary grass offers considerable potential as a bioenergy crop especially on marginal land as it can grow well in both dry and wet areas. We have developed a trial network of genetically diverse reed canary grass to help define optimum ideotypes for combustion or anaerobic digestion. We are also using state of the art LemnaTec-based high throughput phenotyping to determine variation between genotypes in their response to drought treatments.  We will present data on key traits from a selection of high yielding genotypes, using Palaton and SW Bamse as references, with the aim of identifying potential new varieties targeted for specific end uses.

  • 3.2.3: Restoring management to neglected forests in the UK: Are we barking up the wrong tree?

    Presenter: Carly Whittaker, Rothamsted Research

    Abstract: In 2007 the Forestry Commission released the ‘Woodfuel Strategy for England’, where it was envisaged that 1 million oven dried tonnes (ODT) could be extracted from the annual overgrowth from England’s undermanaged forests. When extrapolated to include Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland a total of 2.4 million ODT could be potentially available to the UK bioenergy sector; enough to heat and power 1 million homes. Since then, however, the true greenhouse gas (GHG) savings from utilising forest-derived biomass has been bought into question. There are concerns over the long-term carbon balance from harvesting fuel from forestlands versus the counterfactual scenario of simply ‘leaving them alone’.

    This presentation discusses the results found from a study funded by the Supergen Bioenergy Hub in collaboration with Forest Research. It examines the carbon balance of restoring management to undermanaged or neglected forests in the UK. The project examines six model case studies to represent the many ways in which neglect can manifest itself in woodlands. The CARBINE model developed by Forest Research was then used to model the growth and carbon changes in the stands over time. The carbon changes caused by introducing either a low, medium or high intensity management regime are tested. Alternatively, an extreme case study of clear-felling and replacement of the stands with either native or exotic species are also presented. A life cycle analysis (LCA) is performed to model temporal carbon storage in biomass and products such as paper, particle board, and construction materials. Also, the GHG emissions from their eventual combustion or disposal at the end of life are estimated. The forest management scenarios are compared with a counterfactual ‘do nothing’ baseline, where the stand is left unmanaged, fossil fuels are not displaced by bioenergy and alternative products (plasterboard, cement, etc.) are manufactured.

  • 3.2.4: Improving rice straw as a feedstock for biorefining

    Presenter: Simon McQueen-Mason, University of York, England, UK

    Abstract:Rice straw currently has little value and is burned in large volumes in producing countries simply to get rid of it. Rice straw burning causes substantial air pollution with impacts on human health, crop yield and climate. The inherent indigestibility and high silica content in rice straw makes it of low quality for use in animal feed or biofuels and biorefinery applications. We have been conducting genome wide association studies of rice accessions from Vietnam to identify quantitative trait loci for digestibility and silica content in order to underpin breeding strategies for straw improvement. These studies reveal large scale natural diversity in these traits, indicating great potential for improvement and revealing some rice cultivars that may already have good attributes for applications in feed and biofuel production.

  • Environment and Ecosystems

    • Integration of biodiversity and ecosystem services into future energy scenarios – lessons learned and next steps: Robert Holland, University of Southampton, England, UK
    • Evaluation of the ECOSSE model for simulating soil carbon under sugarcane in Brazil, Marta Dondini, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Scotland
    • Biogenic carbon emissions of ‘hot-spot’ bioenergy sources: emerging findings of the SUPERGEN Challenge project MAGLUE : Robert Matthews, Forest Research, UK
    • Investigating impacts on hydrology of land use change from grazed grassland to Miscanthus. Amanda Holder,  Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences , Aberystwyth University, Wales
    • Effect of AD feedstock on digestate nutrient content, wheat yield and grain quality: Helen West, University of Nottingham

  • 3.3.1:Integration of biodiversity and ecosystem services into future energy scenarios – lessons learned and next steps

    Presenter: Robert Holland, University of Southampton, England.

    Abstract:Scenarios have been used extensively across domains to consider how the future might unfold, allowing governments, business and third sector organisation to explore management options and develop responses to challenges that are identified. For the energy sector, a primary focus of scenario exercises in recent years has been routes to decarbonisation. At the same time, work within the environmental sector has used scenario exercises to explore anthropogenic drivers of the degradation and loss of species and ecosystem services, the implications of this for society, and the policy options that are available to reverse such trends.

    Given their potentially large spatial footprint, bioenergy systems operate at the interface between energy and the environment, which could affect/benefit a large range of ecosystem services. As such, there is a need to integrate national and international policy drivers relating to decarbonisation, biodiversity and other ecosystem services within scenario design in order to examine the contribution of bioenergy to future energy systems and the environment.  We consider evidence for such integration by examining the projected role of bioenergy across leading energy and environmental scenario exercises. Using a bioenergy systems’ optimisation model, we detail the challenges and opportunities that practitioners face in conducting such an integrated analysis across energy and environmental domains. Importantly, results from our model demonstrate the influence that such integration can have on the identification of desirable bioenergy deployment strategies.

  • 3.3.2: Evaluation of the ECOSSE model for simulating soil carbon under sugarcane in Brazil

    Presenter: Marta Dondini, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Scotland.

    Abstract:Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a common bioenergy crop due to its large biomass production, from which ethanol can be derived and used in place of fossil fuels for transport, thereby providing benefits for greenhouse gases (GHG).

    Traditional sugarcane management is based on the use of fire prior to harvesting to improve the efficiency of harvesting and transport operations, but this also causes loss of organic matter and volatile nutrients. In the Sao Paulo state of Brazil, this practice will terminate by 2017 as studies report that it produces high GHG and black carbon emissions. However, the full impact of sugarcane on GHG emissions requires that the effects on carbon dynamics over the life time of the crop to be considered.

    The ECOSSE model was developed to simulate soil carbon dynamics and GHG emissions in mineral and organic soils and could be a useful tool to study the effect of sugarcane plantations in Brazil.

    Here we parameterise and evaluate the ECOSSE model for its ability to simulate soil carbon under sugarcane plantations. We apply the model on selected Brazilian sites and investigate the effect of fire on carbon sequestration.

    The results of the present work revealed a good correlation between modelled and measured soil carbon and soil carbon change after transition to sugarcane at 0-100 cm soil depth. Site measurements and model simulations indicated that cessation of burning may increase topsoil carbon and therefore the cessation of this management practice can play an important role in reducing the payback time associated with sugarcane for ethanol production.

    This work provides confidence for using ECOSSE for quantitatively predicting the impacts of future land-use change to sugarcane, at site level, as well as at national level.

  • 3.3.3: Biogenic carbon emissions of ‘hot-spot’ bioenergy sources: emerging findings of the SUPERGEN Challenge project MAGLUE

    Presenter: Robert Matthews, Forest Research, UK

    Abstract: The emerging findings of the SUPERGEN Challenge project, MAGLUE, are reported. The project aims to develop a body of estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for selection of bioenergy sources from around the word, of current and future relevance to energy supply to the UK. Frequently, a major determinant of variability in the GHG emissions of bioenergy sources are the contributions from biogenic carbon of biomass, including those associated with vegetation and soil of land-use changes and practises involved in the production and supply of biomass for use as energy. There is now a significant body of evidence from life cycle assessments (LCA) of biogenic the carbon emissions of a range of biomass energy feedstocks. However, results of different LCA studies are difficult and sometimes impossible to compare. A major aim of the MAGLUE project is to shed light on the causes of variability in biogenic carbon emissions of different bioenergy sources. The project has focussed on a selection of bioenergy production systems in different regions off the world, identified as ‘hot-spots’, in terms of their relevance to the supply of biomass for energy in the UK, and potential variability in associated GHG emissions. Considerable stress has been placed on adopting a consistent LCA methodology for the case studies, starting with the process of specifying and explicitly stated LCA question, purpose, goal and scope. Progress and preliminary findings are described for four case studies: Wood pellets produced in North America; Wood feedstocks produced in Eastern Europe; oil palm produced in Southeast Asia; sugar cane produced in Brazil.

  • 3.3.4: Investigating impacts on hydrology of land use change from grazed grassland to Miscanthus

    Presenter: Amanda Holder,  Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences , Aberystwyth University, Wales

    Abstract: An increased emphasis on renewable energy generation could result in the increased planting of the bioenergy crop Miscanthus. Different crop types and land uses can impact on soil moisture levels and water holding capacity and policy makers  must ensure that the impacts of increased bioenergy demands are fully assessed. Recent UK flooding events have also highlighted the need to consider the role in mitigation played by farmland and upland areas. Miscanthus has a high water demand to quickly increase biomass with rapid canopy closure and effective rainfall interception, these traits may be of benefit in reducing flooding, soil erosion and nutrient run-off. Studies involving Miscanthus and hydrology have mainly been completed using plot trials, and it could be expected that commercial scale plantations would produce different results due to differences in wind turbulence across larger cropped areas. This study aims to investigate aspects of hydrology following land us change from grazed grassland to Miscanthus using a 4 year old 6ha commercial scale crop planted in marginal agricultural soils. A moisture map of the field completed after 4 years of Miscanthus growth shows a smoothing out of moisture pockets when compared with a moisture map completed prior to conversion. Field measurements of plant growth parameters, canopy development, and canopy precipitation interception are being combined with long term monitoring using eddy covariance for use in water balance models. Dip wells will also be installed in the cropped field and adjacent grassland. Whilst the project is in its early stages preliminary results from the canopy interception study will be presented along with the moisture map.

  • 3.3.5: Effect of AD feedstock on digestate nutrient content, wheat yield and grain quality

    Presenter: Helen West, University of Nottingham

    Abstract: Anaerobic digestate residue (ADR) is a valuable source of nutrients and its increasing utilisation as a fertiliser in agriculture necessitates the need for environmental and agronomic monitoring. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutrient potential of digestates derived from a range of feedstocks and the effects different ADRs have on soil properties, winter wheat yield and grain quality. Field trials were conducted using five ADRs and commercial Nitram (ammonium nitrate) as a control; all were applied at rates which met the nitrogen demand of the crop. The ADRs were collected from farm-scale AD units and from those processing vegetable and food-waste; feedstocks included: (1) Cattle manure, food and potato waste; (2) maize silage; (3) cattle manure, cheese manufacturing waste (whey) and silage; (4) potato waste; (5) food waste.  Type of ADR did not affect soil organic matter, available-N, NO3-N or NH4-N, measured at the time of harvest approximately four months after the final application. However, soil available-N and NO3-N were highest in the Nitram treated plots. In the field, the ADRs derived from food wastes resulted in higher soil sodium concentrations and although low (<22 mg kg-1), long-term use of food-derived ADRs may result in significant increases in soil sodium. Potato and food waste ADRs resulted in similar yields to Nitram, but the other ADRs reduced yield by approximately 8%, probably due to nitrogen volatilisation following application. All of the ADR digestates except that derived from maize silage resulted in heavier wheat grains (1000 grain weight) than those from Nitram amended plots.  Grain quality differed between treatments with maize-derived ADR resulting in wheat flour with the lowest total amino acid and nitrogen concentrations. Flour amino acid profiles differed with each ADR amendment. The implications of this for protein quality are currently being investigated.